Bed Bug Frequently Asked Questions
DO NATURAL PRODUCTS REALLY WORK TO KILL BED BUGS?
Yes, natural treatments are incredibly effective in killing bed bugs.* We have the lab results and thousands of customer testimonials saying how well our bed bug treatments work.
WHY SHOULD I USE BED BUG PATROL OVER LESS EXPENSIVE BED BUG KILLERS?
Bed Bug Patrol only uses premium natural ingredients that are proven to kill bed bugs and are safe to use around children and pets. Less expensive chemical bed bug killers can harm your environment and loved ones. Bed bugs evolve quickly and become immune to traditional chemical treatments wasting your time & money.
WHY SHOULD I TRUST YOU?
We have been selling natural products online since 2003, with thousands of positive five-star reviews. We have an A+ BBB rating for customer satisfaction, plus our 90-day 100% satisfaction guarantee, the best guarantee in the industry.
WHEN SHOULD I ORDER AND HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO SEE RESULTS?
You should order immediately. The faster you treat the bed bugs, the less time they have to reproduce, creating a more significant problem of them spreading. Bed Bug Patrol is a kill-on-contact spray so that you will see instant results, and along with the crawling insect dust, it will keep killing the bed bugs even while you sleep.
DO YOU HAVE A LIVE PERSON I CAN ASK ABOUT MY BED BUG PROBLEM?
Yes, you can talk to several experienced customer service reps. You can reach us Monday thru Friday from 9 am to 5 pm EST, and we'll be happy to answer any question you have. Just call us toll-free at 1-866-371-2499.
HOW FAST CAN BED BUGS CRAWL?
Bed bugs can get around quickly by crawling from 3 to 5 feet per minute.
Being that bed bugs are wingless, and they cannot fly. They also cannot jump. They make their way onto beds by crawling up the legs of bed frames. They can also creep up bed skirts, blankets, or any other bedding that touches the floor.
Bed bugs also like to hide behind cracks and crevices in walls. They will eventually crawl onto headboards and mattresses to get closer to their food source.
Bed bugs also prefer natural and textured surfaces to crawl on and don't travel as well on slick surfaces.
HOW DO BED BUGS DETECT HUMANS?
Two things attract bed bugs to humans.
Bed bugs are attracted to our body heat; it only takes seconds to feel your body heat and begin to feed off of you.
Bed bugs are also attracted to the carbon dioxide we exhale. As soon as bed bugs detect the presence of carbon dioxide, they will come out from hiding to begin feeding.
WHAT DO BED BUGS EAT?
Bed bugs are blood-sucking parasites that feed off of human blood. They like to hide by day and mostly come out at night while you sleep. When you fall into the deep sleep cycle, your breath emits carbon dioxide, which attracts bed bugs to their victim.
While bed bugs will feed off of warm-blooded mammals, their primary food source of choice in humans.
Bed bugs do not feed off of anything other than blood.
A bed bug will feed off you anywhere from 3 to 12 minutes or until it is complete.
WHAT DON'T BED BUGS LIKE?
Bed bugs do not like essential oils such as lavender, peppermint, and tea tree oil. Bed Bug Patrol is a natural bed bug killer product that uses essential oils as part of its formula to kill bed bugs. Bed bugs also do not like excessive heat because they cannot survive high temperatures.
That’s why one of the best ways to sanitize your clothing and bedding from bed bugs is to wash them with hot water and then put them in the dryer at a high temperature. For items you cannot launder, steam heat is also very effective in killing bed bugs and their eggs. Take caution when using a steamer, and opt for a dry steamer over a wet one, so your furniture and carpeting do not get wet. This reduces the risk of mold and moisture damage.
Dry steam heating is effective on rugs, carpeting, box springs, mattresses, headboards, flooring, and most other surfaces.
WHEN BED BUGS BITE: WHAT DO BED BUGS DO TO YOUR SKIN?
Bed bugs are primarily nocturnal creatures that like to come out at night. Their primary source of food is your blood. Bed bugs are attracted to human body heat and carbon dioxide you exhale while sleeping. As soon as they detect carbon dioxide, they will come out of hiding for a nice blood meal. These pests will feed off of you, drawing blood anywhere from 3 to 10 minutes or until they've filled and crawled back to their hiding place. When bed bugs bite, they feed on you by piercing the skin and withdrawing blood with their elongated beaks. You will not feel the bed bug biting you because they inject an anesthetic, numbing chemical, and an anti-clotting agent, so your blood flows freely. A bed bug will feed on you anywhere from three to ten minutes while you sleep and then quickly go back into hiding once they've had its fill.
When bed bugs initially bite you while you sleep, you will not feel it, and they will not awaken you. Bed bug bites turn into red itchy welts on your skin, appearing on any areas where the skin is exposed while sleeping. If bed bugs have bitten you, you may not show any signs of being bitten, depending on how you react to the bite. Bites may not appear the same day you've been bitten, and may take a few days to show signs of bed bug bites. Bed bug bites commonly occur in clusters or zig-zag lines appearing as tiny red welts on areas where the skin has been exposed during sleep. The bites can be itchy, and depending on the severity of how an individual reacts, the itching can become severe. Depending on the severity of the itch or if you already have some signs of infection, you may want to see your doctor. Over time, people become increasingly sensitive to bed bug bites, so the red welts and itching will grow in intensity the more often you are bitten. The symptoms of bed bug bites usually last around one to two weeks. If you find yourself with bed bug bites, you will want to wash the bites with mild soap and water. This will help reduce itchiness and help prevent infection. You can also use an over-the-counter anti-itch cream or ointment to help relieve the irritation and itch, as well as to help prevent infections as a result of scratching.
WHAT DO BED BUG EGGS LOOK LIKE?
Bed bug eggs are translucent white in color and are about the size of a grain of uncooked white rice. They tend to be sticky and are usually found clustered together. A female bed bug will lay 1-5 eggs per day. They can be dropped on almost any surface but are typically found in cracks or rough surfaces, especially around your mattress seams, and hatch in about one week.
WHAT DO BED BUGS LOOK LIKE?
It's important to know what bed bugs look like so that you don't confuse them for a different type of insect and can determine quickly whether or not you have bed bugs.
Bed bugs are about the size of an apple seed. They are wingless and have a flat, oval-shaped body if they have not recently fed. They will be reddish brown in color. If they have recently had a blood meal, their shape will be more elongated and complete, and they will be darker brown in color. Young (nymph) bed bugs are smaller than adults and are about the size of a pinhead. They are translucent or a whitish-yellow color.
WHAT DO BED BUGS LOOK LIKE ON A MATTRESS?
To determine if you have bed bugs, you will want to inspect your mattress and box spring for any signs of them. You will first want to check your bed sheets and mattress for rust-colored or reddish stains, which occur when bed bugs get crushed. You will also need to look for any dark spots about the size of a pin head (look like this “•”) on your mattress or box spring. These dark spots are bed bug excrement and may bleed on the fabric as a marker would. Look for eggs and egg shells about 1 millimeter in size, as well as pale yellow ‘skins’ that the nymphs shed as they grow.
WHEN ARE BED BUGS MOST ACTIVE?
Bed bugs are generally the most active at night when you are sleeping. This is their optimal time to feed on you undetected. Research has shown that bed bugs come out between 3 a.m. and 5 a.m. when you are in your deepest sleep. When you are in a deep sleep, you emit carbon dioxide as you breathe. Bed bugs are very attracted to carbon dioxide, and it serves as a signal for them to come out and feed. Although bed bugs are active year-round, they become more energetic in warmer weather or warm climates. However, cold weather climates such as Alaska also deal with bed bug infestations.
WILL BED BUGS COME BACK?
Post Bed Bug Treatment
We know that bed bugs are good at hiding, so if you've had your home treated for bed bugs, you may see them after treatment. If some eggs survived the treatment, you might also see more bed bugs.
The reintroduction of infested items can cause another reason you may see bed bugs after treatment. A reputable pest management company will include a follow-up visit 30 days after treatment to remove bed bugs and re-treat if necessary.
After your home has been treated for bed bugs: Here are some tips to help prevent a re-infestation:
- To help ensure you don't have bed bugs, place a bed bug trap under the legs of your bed. You can also use bed bug traps when you travel to ensure you don't bring any bed bugs home.
- Place encasements on your box spring and mattress, preventing any surviving bed bugs from escaping the encasement.
- Vacuum daily in the first few weeks after treatment. Immediately dispose of the vacuum bag after cleaning. The eggs could still be around even if you do not see signs of bed bugs.
Protect yourself from bringing bed bugs home with you when you travel:
Bed bugs are expert hitchhikers, latching on to your luggage and clothes when traveling and winding up in your home.
- Before making travel plans, you can visit the bed bug registry to ensure your hotel isn't infested with bed bugs.
- Protect your luggage from bed bugs with luggage protection covers.
- Protect yourself from bed bug bites with travel-size, TSA-approved, all-natural bed bug killer spray when sleeping in hotel beds. You can also spray down your luggage—bags, and clothes to protect yourself from bringing bed bugs home with you.
- Upon your return, immediately wash your clothes in hot water and dry your clothes in high heat to kill any bed bugs.
- Be sure to examine the seams and zippers of your luggage before bringing luggage into your home.
If you're buying new or used furniture, inspect all furniture before bringing it into your home. A bed bug detection UV light can help you spot signs of bed bug droppings and eggs, preventing an infestation.
Never bring home discarded furniture, mattresses, bed frames, or headboards. There's a good chance they are infested with bed bugs and have been discarded for a reason.
HOW DO BED BUGS REPRODUCE?
How bed bugs reproduce can be traumatic for the female bed bug. To inseminate the female, the male bed bug must pierce her belly. Because the mating process can be traumatic for the female, she will isolate herself and travel to an area where she can feed.
Because pregnant female bed bugs are more likely to travel to isolated areas away from other bed bugs, it is more likely that any bed bug you accidentally pick up will be pregnant.
After a blood feeding, a female bed bug can lay one to seven eggs per day and will lay anywhere from 200 - 300 eggs during her lifetime and can cause an infestation of 5,000 bed bugs within six months. Eggs are laid singly or in clusters and are placed within tight cracks or crevices. This can include electrical outlets, inside wood frames, inside boxes or shoes stored under beds, sofas, chairs, recliners, etc.
The eggs hatch in about 6 -10 days. The newly hatched nymphs then travel to seek a blood meal.
DOES RUBBING ALCOHOL KILL BED BUGS?
Although helpful, rubbing alcohol only provides temporary relief against bed bugs. According to an article in Science News, during their test, rubbing alcohol killed only half of the bed bugs that were sprayed directly with it.
Rubbing alcohol comes in 70% and 91% concentrations. If you are going to spray bed bugs with rubbing alcohol, it is recommended that you use 91% Isopropyl rubbing alcohol.
Spraying bed bugs with 90% isopropyl rubbing alcohol will kill them on contact. However, Isopropyl alcohol should only be used for spot treatment to kill single insects, not an infestation. For a full and proper treatment of an infestation, Bed Bug Patrol is a much safer and more effective solution that is safe for use around the home and, once dry, is safe around children and pets.
WHICH HOTELS HAVE BED BUGS?
Hotels have a high turnover of people and have had their fair share of dealing with bed bug infestations.
Bed bugs don't care how clean or dirty you are, so even the swankiest hotels can be infested with bed bugs.
Bed bugs are always on the hunt for a human host to feed off of. Where there are people, there are bed bugs - especially in areas with a high turnover of people because bed bugs love to hitchhike and infest new places.
They tend to infest public places and spread to new locations via purses, backpacks, clothing, or coats.
You may encounter bed bugs when staying at any hotel, mainly located in a major metropolitan city.
If you are staying at any of the hotels that are in popular tourist cities, here are some tips to help prevent being bitten by bed bugs or transporting them:
Check hotel headboards, mattresses, and box springs for live bed bugs, their exoskeletons, and dark blood spots. Hang all clothing. Leave nothing lying on the bed or furniture. Avoid storing clothing in a hotel's furniture drawers. Store suitcases on a luggage rack as far away from the bed as possible.Vacuum suitcases when returning home, and immediately wash clothing in hot water. Between trips, store luggage in a sealed plastic bag in a garage or basement, away from bedrooms. If you suspect you have bedbugs, you can eliminate them safely with all-natural Bug Patrol Spray.
WHICH PESTICIDE KILLS BED BUGS?
There are more than 300 products registered with the EPA for use against bed bugs. Most of these products can be used by consumers. At the same time, a select few are written for use only by trained professionals because they can be hazardous.
Bed bugs are now becoming immune to the most common pesticides, so the EPA requires that any product that claims to kill bed bugs must be supported by data showing that the product will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Although the data may indicate that the pesticide can kill bed bugs, how effective the pesticide works will depend on other factors.
According to the EPA, not all treatments will work in all situations, so you'll want to weigh all your options carefully.
Hiring a professional to treat bed bugs can be expensive. Beyond most people's means, many people opt for a DIY solution.
All natural, cost-effective pesticide that kills bed bugs
Fortunately, a safe, cost-effective, all-natural pesticide has been proven to kill bed bugs.
Bed Bug Patrol Bed Bug Killer is an all-natural, cost-effective pesticide that kills bed bugs. It not only works, but it is also safe to use around pets and children. Bed Bug Patrol contains natural essential oils that kill bed bugs on contact within 30 minutes to 24 hours.
Unlike many pesticides on the market, bed bugs are not resistant to Bed Bug Patrol Bed Bug killer.
WHICH TEMPERATURE KILLS BED BUGS?
Using heat treatment to kill bed bugs
Bed bugs are pesky creatures that can be difficult to kill., however one way to control and eliminate bed bugs from bedding, clothing, and rugs, for example – is by using heat. The advantage of using heat to kill bed bugs is that heat is non-toxic and can kill all bed bugs, including their eggs.
Research has determined that lethal temperatures for bed bugs range from 117 - 122 degrees Fahrenheit. While temperature is essential when using heat to eliminate bed bugs, so is the exposure time to the heat source.
Bed bugs exposed to 113°F will die if they receive constant exposure to that temperature for at least 90 minutes or more. However, they will die within 20 minutes if exposed to 118°F. Interestingly, bed bug eggs must be exposed to 118°F for 90 minutes to reach 100% mortality.
Depending on what you are treating, here are a few heat treatment methods to kill bed bugs.
Steam heat can be applied to the carpet, upholstered furniture, mattresses, box springs, bed frames, blankets/sheets, curtains, and pillows without causing damage.
While washing clothes and bedding in hot soapy water can kill bed bugs, there are items you may not be able to launder. This is where a clothes dryer can effectively kill bed bugs. You can effectively kill bed bugs by running things in a clothes dryer on high heat for at least 20 minutes.
Who exterminates bed bugs? Who treats bed bugs?
Bed bugs can be challenging to get rid of. Many seek professional services to exterminate bed bugs when bed bugs are detected.
What should you expect when calling a professional service to eliminate bed bugs?
Many professional bed bug exterminators will provide a free inspection to determine if you have bed bugs and the degree of infestation. Once an infestation is confirmed, the exterminator will recommend the best course of action based on your preferences.
Because bed bugs can be difficult to kill, most bed bug exterminators will use Integrated Pest Management, which includes a combination of treatment methods ranging from steam heat to freezing to pesticides. Most reputable professional bed bug exterminators will offer a 30-day guarantee after completion of service and will re-treat at no additional charge.
With bed bug infestations on the rise, bed bugs have become a booming business. At the same time, there are some reputable companies out there who are more qualified than others to treat bed bugs, beware of other -less reputable and unqualified companies who have hopped on the bed bug extermination wagon.
Before hiring a bed bug extermination company, check to see if the company and technician you are hiring are licensed in your state. You should also check the Better Business Bureau for any complaints filed against the exterminators you are considering.
Bed bug treatments can get expensive, so you want to do your research before hiring a professional or taking on the extermination yourself. Depending on the infestation and treatment size, you may end up paying as much as $5,000 to hire a service company to eliminate bed bugs.
Initially, most pest control companies will do a free inspection to determine if you do have bed bugs. Other companies may charge anywhere from $100 - $250 to inspect your home for bed bugs.
Before signing with an exterminator, being that it's almost impossible to kill all bed bugs in one treatment, you'll want to make sure they make at least one follow-up visit. You'll also want to know if follow-up visits are included in the price they quoted you.
Bed Bug Prevention
HOW CAN I PREVENT BED BUGS IN MY HOME?
HERE ARE SEVERAL PRECAUTIONS YOU CAN TAKE TO HELP PREVENT BED BUGS FROM ENTERING YOUR HOME:
The best thing you can do is keep an eye out for bed bugs in your home before it becomes an infestation. You will want to look for signs of bed bugs where you sleep or rest (beds, recliners, sofas).
Bed bugs are very good at hiding in all kinds of cracks and crevices, so you will want to grab a flashlight and check behind wallpaper, picture frames, under the edges of carpeting, any gaps in wood floors, and inside of all furniture.
If you travel, you'll want to check your luggage and the area where you store it for signs of bed bugs.
HOW DO I AVOID BRINGING HOME BED BUGS WHEN TRAVELING?
The most significant risk of bed bugs is when traveling. This is where most people tend to pick up bed bugs and bring them back home. Regardless of the type of accommodations you have, you should always inspect your room. You'll want to pull back the sheets for signs of bed bugs. Check behind the headboard, in the seams of upholstered furniture, etc.
If you see any signs of bed bugs, let the hotel management know immediately and ask for another room in another part of the hotel.
Suppose you do not see any obvious signs of bed bugs. In that case, it is still advisable not to leave luggage on the bed or the floor and avoid placing your belongings inside dressers. Place your clothing on hangers in hanging them in the closet. Store your luggage off the floor and on luggage racks away from the walls.
When returning home from a trip, keep your luggage in the garage and carefully inspect it for signs of bed bugs. Place all washable items in a plastic bag, immediately wash your clothes in hot water, and place them in the dryer on high heat to disinfect clothing from possible bed bugs.
Thoroughly vacuum luggage or steam heat luggage. Carefully inspect all seams and luggage lining before bringing luggage into your home.
WHAT ARE BED BUGS ATTRACTED TO?
We are aware that bed bugs are attracted to carbon dioxide. When we fall into a deep sleep, as we exhale, we emit carbon dioxide, which attracts bed bugs to come out from hiding. Bed bugs are also attracted to the body heat that humans generate.
But here's something interesting we bet you have yet to hear of. According to an article published in Newsweek Magazine, bed bugs are also attracted to color.
The article states that bed bugs are specifically attracted to the colors black and red and do not like the colors green, yellow, and white.
Bed bugs are not picky about cleanliness or hygiene. It simply doesn't matter how clean or dirty your home is—their only objective is to seek warmth, carbon dioxide, and finally, a blood meal.
There is a way to attract bed bugs to determine if you have an infestation. This will not kill them but can be helpful to alert you of an infestation in its early stages.
Here's how to make a simple DIY bed bug trap according to this National Geographic article:
Fill an old coffee cup with ten tablespoons (150 grams) of sugar, two tablespoons (30 grams) of yeast, and one and a half quarts (one and a half liters) of water, and put it in the middle of an upturned dog bowl.
Voila! You have just made a bedbug detector that beats others on the market and is much cheaper.
When the yeast mixes with sugar, it releases carbon dioxide, attracting bed bugs.
Shipping & Order Info
ORDER BEFORE 2 PM EST, AND YOUR PRODUCT WILL SHIP THE SAME DAY, MONDAY-FRIDAY.
CAN YOU SHIP THE PRODUCT TO ME OVERNIGHT AND 2ND DAY AIR?
Yes. In the domestic USA, we can ship overnight by either checking out via the online shopping cart or calling us. If we receive the order before 2 PM EST USA, which is a weekday, we can ship rush orders.
Please note that Overnight and 2nd day Air shipments shipped Thursdays or Fridays before 2 PM EST will not be delivered Saturdays or Sundays as UPS does not deliver packages on those days. Note: UPS does not count non-business days (Saturday and Sunday) in their transit time.
HOW LONG WILL IT TAKE FOR ME TO GET MY DOMESTIC U.S. ORDER?
All online orders are generally processed and shipped the same business day, excluding holidays and weekends, if the order is placed by 2 PM EST USA. Shipping is automatically calculated, and shipping options are offered upon checkout.
We ship from Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and estimate between 2 to 5 days for the product delivery (after processing and shipment), depending on the shipping method (UPS, USPS). Please anticipate 7-30 business days for product delivery for International orders (after processing and shipment). Some countries' customs offices may be slower than others in processing incoming shipments. These estimates may be affected due to unforeseen inventory shortages and UPS / Postal Service delays.
Please Note: UPS only counts non-business days (Saturday and Sunday) in their transit time if the premium added service of Saturday delivery is added to the shipment, and that has an additional fee.
*We ship from Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We are the star in the lower right-hand corner of the map. Look at the map to get an estimate of how long it will take for USPS Priority Mail or UPS service to reach you.
DO YOU SHIP INTERNATIONALLY?
Yes, we ship worldwide from the USA. Shipping options are offered upon checkout, depending on your country. Global Priority Mail can take from 7-20+ days to reach its destination, depending on local customs officials. Customs is usually the main hold-up for shipping overseas. You will be responsible for any VAT, duty, or customs charges customs officials impose.
If you would like your package to be received much faster, please select UPS Worldwide expedited or Express when you check out from our store.
The customer is responsible for any duty, VAT, or local customs or destination charges imposed by customs officials in your country. These charges are out of our hands, and we try and minimize them as much as possible.
HAVE YOU SHIPPED TO MY COUNTRY BEFORE?
We have shipped to the following countries:
Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Australia, Aruba, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Bahamas, Canada. *the Cayman Islands, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Fiji, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Guam, Guatemala, Iceland, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Korea, Republic of Kuwait, Luxembourg, Macau, Malawi, Mexico, Monaco, New Caledonia Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Norway, Panama, Peru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Trinidad, Tobago, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, US Minor Outlying Islands, Venezuela, Virgin Islands (U.S.).
** Due to Canadian Regulations, We do not ship Bed Bug Patrol or BenzaRid Products to Canada.
DO YOU ACCEPT MAIL ORDERS AND FAX ORDERS?
Yes, we do! Add products to your checkout and print out the form, fax, or mail checks (checks require 5-7 days to clear before shipment) or money orders.
Mail to: Nature's Innovation, Inc. 5713 Palmero Court Buford, GA 30518 USA
Fax to: 678-889-4480
We recommend sending a money order, and we will ship the same day of receipt if received by 2 PM EST. Please email us so we can look out for your order. For international orders, we require an International Money Order, payable in US$.
You may fax your order for a quicker response to:
*Mail Order Note: Checks may require up to 7 business days for the check to clear before the order is processed and shipped. Money Orders will be processed and shipped within 24 hours of receipt.
HOW MUCH ARE SHIPPING AND HANDLING?
Shipping and handling are automatically calculated upon shopping cart checkout. Enter your shipping address, and the shopping cart will display your shipping options based on your location.
WHAT DOES YOUR PACKAGING LOOK LIKE?
Our packaging is very discreet, with no mention of a product or its use on the box or package. Your privacy is crucial to us.
Our products are delivered in plain packaging with only the company name, "Natures Innovation, Inc." and the return address on the outside. There is NO mention of the product within to protect your privacy.
Due to Canadian regulations, we do not ship any Bed Bug Patrol products or BenzaRid products to Canada.
Due to state regulations, we do not ship our EPA-registered Crawling Insect Dust to California, New York, Florida, Michigan, or Louisiana.
Guarantee & Return Policies
100% MONEY BACK SATISFACTION GUARANTEE!
We are so confident that you will be delighted with our natural bed bug products that we offer a 90-day 100% Money Back Guarantee.
Make a diligent effort to use the products as directed for at least 30 days. If unsatisfied with the product, you may return the unused portion with its original containers to us. We will refund the purchase price, less shipping fees.
Please ship any unused or unopened products with their original containers, including your name, address, and order number, to:
Natures Innovation, Inc.
5317 Palmero Court
Buford, GA 30518
For further information, please read our policies
What are the ingredients in Bed Bug Patrol Killer Treatment?
Our Bed Bug Patrol Treatment is made with the following ingredients:
Clove Oil, Peppermint Oil, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Citric Acid, Glycerin, Oleic Acid, Water.